On March 3, 1952, In a 6-3 decision, the U.S. Supreme Court upholds a New York state law that prohibits communists from teaching in public schools. It was the time of the Red Scare in the United States so the Supreme Court decision was additional evidence that many Americans were concerned about possible subversive communist activity in their country. Adler v. Board of Education of City of New York (No. 8)

 Chief Justice  Fred M. Vinson Associate Justices  Hugo L. Black Stanley Reed Felix Frankfurter William O. Douglas Robert H. Jackson Harold Burton Tom C. Clark Sherman Minton Reason Formed  Sherman Minton Joined Date Formed:  Wednesday, October 12, 1949 Date Disbanded:  Tuesday, September 8, 1953

Chief Justice: Fred M. Vinson, Associate Justices: Hugo L. Black, Stanley Reed, Felix Frankfurter, William O. Douglas<br, Robert H. Jackson, Harold Burton, Tom C. Clark, Sherman Minton, Reason Formed: Sherman Minton Joined Date Formed: Wednesday, October 12, 1949 Date Disbanded: Tuesday, September 8, 1953

In New York, the Feinberg Law, banned from the teaching profession anyone who called for the overthrow of the government.  The law was specifically aimed at communists. Several other states adopted similar measures. In New York, a group of teachers and parents challenged the law, and eventually the case went to the Supreme Court. The majority decision upholding the Feinberg Law, declared the New York Times, supported the belief that 

“the state had a constitutional right to protect the immature minds of children in its public schools from subversive propaganda, subtle or otherwise, disseminated by those ‘to whom they look for guidance, authority and leadership.’”

 The minority opinion from justices William O. Douglas, Hugo Black, and Felix Frankfurter charged that the New York statute “turns the school system into a spying project.” 

In New York, the Teachers Union vowed to continue fighting the law as eight teachers had already been dismissed and as many others were facing hearings.

The decision mimicked the national temper.

  • Former State Department official Alger Hiss had been convicted of perjury in connection with his testimony concerning his involvement with the Communist Party; 
Alger Hiss

Alger Hiss

  • Julius and Ethel Rosenberg had been convicted and sentenced to death for passing atomic secrets to the Soviets.  
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg

Julius and Ethel Rosenberg

  • Senator Joseph McCarthy had made a career out of searching for communists in the U.S. government. 
"Joseph McCarthy" by United Press - Library of Congress. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons - http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Joseph_McCarthy.jpg#mediaviewer/File:Joseph_McCarthy.jpg

“Joseph McCarthy” by United Press – Library of Congress. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons – http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Joseph_McCarthy.jpg#mediaviewer/File:Joseph_McCarthy.jpg

By 1952, many Americans were convinced that communist agents and supporters were actively at work within the United States, and that their forces permeated every aspect of American life. The Feinberg Law remained in force until another Supreme Court decision in 1967 declared most of its provisions unconstitutional.

 

 

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2 responses

  1. Birgit says:

    How many people’s lives were destroyed by fear? It is such a shame and goes against the land of the free

    Like