British spy John André is court-martialed, found guilty and sentenced to death by hanging on this day in 1780.

Benedict Arnold and John Andre

Benedict Arnold and John Andre

André, an accomplice of Benedict Arnold, had been captured by Patriots John Paulding, David Williams and Isaac Van Wart six days earlier on September 23, after they found incriminating papers stashed in his boot.

Capture of Major John Andre by John Paulding, David Williams and Issac Vanwart

Capture of Major John Andre by John Paulding, David Williams and Issac Vanwart

It was the discovery of these papers that revealed the traitorous actions of Benedict Arnold to the U.S. authorities. Upon hearing of André’s capture, Arnold fled to the British warship Vulture and subsequently joined the British in their fight against his country.

Royal Navy sloop-of-war of the late 18th century. These were unrated ships, which meant they carried less than 20 guns. They were used extensively in the Revolutionary War because of their small size and speed. One of the (the HMS Vulture) was used to carry Major John Andre to his meeting with Benedict Arnold. Another (the HMS Nautilus) was used to deliver Gage’s orders to put down the rebellion in Massachusetts

Royal Navy sloop-of-war of the late 18th century. These were unrated ships, which meant they carried less than 20 guns. They were used extensively in the Revolutionary War because of their small size and speed. One of the (the HMS Vulture) was used to carry Major John Andre to his meeting with Benedict Arnold. Another (the HMS Nautilus) was used to deliver Gage’s orders to put down the rebellion in Massachusetts

After being sentenced to death, André was allowed to write a letter to his commander, British General Henry Clinton.

Sir Henry Clinton

Sir Henry Clinton

Click on each page of the letter to see the translation.

André also wrote a letter to General George Washington in which he asked, not that his life be spared, but that he be executed by firing squad. Death by firing squad was considered a more “gentlemanly” death than hanging.

Even members of the Continental Army respected André’s bravery, including General Washington, who wanted to find a way to spare André’s life. Believing that André committed a lesser crime than Benedict Arnold, Washington wrote a letter to Clinton, stating that he would exchange André for Arnold, so that Arnold could be hanged instead.

When he did not receive a reply to his offer by October 2, Washington wrote in his “general order” of the day, “That Major Andre General to the British Army ought to be considered as a spy from the Enemy and that agreeable to the law and usage of nations it is their opinion he ought to suffer death. “The Commander in Chief directs the execution of the above sentence in the usual way this afternoon at five o’clock precisely.”

John André was executed by hanging in Tappan, New York, on October 2, 1780. He was 31 years old.

John_Andre

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One response

  1. Birgit says:

    If one can say this he still died with dignity. He never waivered and did not ask for forgiveness just wanted the firing squad instead.

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