On May 29, 1932, during the Great Depression, a group of 1,000 World War I veterans that called themselves the “Bonus Expeditionary Force,” marched on Washington D.C seeking seeking cash payments for their veterans’ bonus certificates. One month later, other veteran groups spontaneously made their way to the nation’s capital. The Bonus Marchers were nearly 20,000 strong and many of them unemployed veterans in desperate financial straits.
Camping in vacant government buildings and in open fields made available by District of Columbia Police Chief Pelham D. Glassford, they demanded passage of the veterans’ payment bill introduced by Representative Wright Patman.
While awaiting a vote on the issue, the veterans conducted themselves in an orderly and peaceful fashion, and on June 15 the Patman bill passed in the House of Representatives. However, two days later, its defeat in the Senate infuriated the marchers, who refused to return home. In an increasingly tense situation, the federal government provided money for the protesters’ trip home, but 2,000 refused the offer and continued to protest.
On July 28, President Herbert Hoover ordered the army, under the command of General Douglas MacArthur, to evict them forcibly. MacArthur’s men set their camps on fire, and the veterans were driven from the city.
Hoover, increasingly regarded as insensitive to the needs of the nation’s many poor, was much criticized by the public and press for the severity of his response.
Related post: G is for Great Depression from the A to Z Challenge