Edward Jenner, an English country doctor from Gloucestershire, administers the world’s first vaccination as a preventive treatment for smallpox, a disease that had killed millions of people over the centuries.

Edward Jenner (1749 - 1823)

Edward Jenner (1749 – 1823)

While still a medical student, Jenner noticed that milkmaids who had contracted a disease called cowpox, which caused blistering on cow’s udders, did not catch smallpox. Unlike smallpox, which caused severe skin eruptions and dangerous fevers in humans, cowpox led to few ill symptoms in these women. On May 14, 1796, Jenner took fluid from a cowpox blister and scratched it into the skin of James Phipps, an eight-year-old boy. A single blister rose up on the spot, but James soon recovered. On July 1, Jenner inoculated the boy again, this time with smallpox matter, and no disease developed. The vaccine was a success. Doctors all over Europe soon adopted Jenner’s innovative technique, leading to a drastic decline in new sufferers of the devastating disease.


In the 19th and 20th centuries, scientists following Jenner’s model developed new vaccines to fight numerous deadly diseases, including polio, whooping cough, measles, tetanus, yellow fever, typhus, and hepatitis B, and many others. More sophisticated smallpox vaccines were also developed and by 1970 international vaccination programs, such as those undertaken by the World Health Organization, had eliminated smallpox worldwide.


2 responses

  1. Birgit says:

    This is brilliant and a main reason why so many children and adults no longer die from this disease, at least in 1st world countries. I will say that when people like Jenny McCarthy says the reason her child has autism is due to the shots he got and one should not get the vaccinations makes me angry. I don’t fault her sadness and fears but now many people are scared to get their children vaccinated because of one celebrity saying things like this and many people do not invesitigate in greater detail. I got the vaccines and I am fine and so are millions of others. Maybe there is something else, like the food one eats, etc… that may be doing damage-we have to be careful in what we say