On September 16, 1940, the Burke-Wadsworth Act is passed by Congress, by wide margins in both houses, and the first peacetime draft in the history of the United States is imposed.

President Roosevelt signs the Burke-Wadsworth conscription bill in the presence of Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson; Congressman Andrew J. May, chairman of the House Military Affairs Committee; General George C. Marshall; and Senator Morris Sheppard, chairman of the Senate Military Affairs Committee, September 16, 1940. (GCMRL/Photographs, 7084)

President Roosevelt signs the Burke-Wadsworth conscription bill in the presence of Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson; Congressman Andrew J. May, chairman of the House Military Affairs Committee; General George C. Marshall; and Senator Morris Sheppard, chairman of the Senate Military Affairs Committee, September 16, 1940. (GCMRL/Photographs, 7084)

The registration of men between the ages of 21 and 36 began exactly one month later, as Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson, who had been a key player in moving the Roosevelt administration away from a foreign policy of strict neutrality, began drawing draft numbers out of a glass bowl. The numbers were handed to the president, who read them aloud for public announcement.

President Roosevelt, left, looks on as Secretary of War Stimson draws the first capsules in the National Lottery for selective service registrants in October 1940. (DA photograph)

President Roosevelt, left, looks on as Secretary of War
Stimson draws the first capsules in the National Lottery
for selective service registrants in October 1940. (DA photograph)

There were some 20 million eligible young men—50 percent were rejected the very first year, either for health reasons or illiteracy (20 percent of those who registered were illiterate).

In November 1942, with the United States now a participant in the war, and not merely a neutral bystander, the draft ages expanded; men 18 to 37 were now eligible. Blacks were passed over for the draft because of racist assumptions about their abilities and the viability of a mixed-race military. But this changed in 1943, when a “quota” was imposed, meant to limit the numbers of blacks drafted to reflect their numbers in the overall population, roughly 10.6 percent of the whole. Initially, blacks were restricted to “labor units,” but this too ended as the war progressed, when they were finally used in combat.

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“Conscientious objector (COs)” status was granted to those who could demonstrate “sincerity of belief in religious teachings combined with a profound moral aversion to war.” Quakers made up most of the COs, but 75 percent of those Quakers who were drafted fought. COs had to perform alternate service in Civilian Public Service Camps, which entailed long hours of hazardous work for no compensation.   I wrote about COs in a previous blog posting.

Civilian Public Service firefighting crew, Camp Snowline (CPS camp #31) near Camino, California, 1945. Left to right: Karl Unruh, Melvin Duerkson, Leo Harder, Melvin Flickenger and Max Miller.

Civilian Public Service firefighting crew, Camp Snowline (CPS camp #31) near Camino, California, 1945. Left to right: Karl Unruh, Melvin Duerkson, Leo Harder, Melvin Flickenger and Max Miller.

About 5,000 to 6,000 men were imprisoned for failing to register or serve the nation in any form; these numbers were comprised mostly of Jehovah’s Witnesses.

draft paper

By war’s end, approximately 34 million men had registered, and 10 million served with the military.

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